Coronavirus impact on contingent liabilities and assets

Coronavirus impact on contingent liabilities and assets

The Whole of Government Accounts , published by HM Treasury, also includes some PPP contracts as on-balance sheet and others off-balance sheet. The WGA applies International Financial Reporting Standards accounting guidance, as interpreted or adapted under the guidance of the Financial Reporting Advisory Board . IFRS focus, in the context of PPPs, on which party is judged to have effective control over the scheme. The result of this different approach is that nearly all PPP assets and liabilities are included in the WGA as on-balance sheet for government. While these two frameworks are similar conceptually, there are important differences, which are discussed further in Section 4. Readers will note that the term “debt” is being used here in a broad sense, in that some of the measures included here are not “pure” measures of debt as such.

  • Provisions are recorded as an expense in the income statement and a corresponding liability is recorded in the balance sheet.
  • In some cases, however, government is seen to bear the ultimate liability for the provision of pension benefits and is treated as a pension manager.
  • A wider measure of debt available from the national accounts is therefore the total financial liabilities .
  • A further difference related to pensions is in the recording of social contributions and social benefits.

Where it’s shown that the potential asset arises as a result of a past event, and the inflow of economic benefits arising from that event is probable, disclosure of a contingent asset will be required describing the nature of the contingent asset and an estimate of the financial effect. Entities should reassess these financial guarantee contracts; the possible or present obligations; and the disclosures required under FRS 102 (sections 21.17A, 21.14 and 21.15). If the event is determined to occur before the reporting date, then unless the future outflow is probable ie more than 50per cent , a contingent liability disclosure is likely to be required.

Contingent assets

This article updates an article on the wider measures of public sector net debt published by Office for National Statistics in December 2017. That article, in turn, updated a series of previous articles, which discussed different measures of public sector debt. This article compares the coverage and composition of different measures of public sector and general government debt available from the UK National Accounts, public sector finances statistics. The main focus here has been on public sector debt, whereas a full understanding of the economic health of the public sector also requires a consideration of public sector assets. Some of these assets, including non-financial assets and financial assets, are already included in public sector balance sheets in the national accounts.

In Blue Book 2014, we introduced substantial improvements to the recording of pensions. These improvements reflected the requirements of ESA 2010, which superseded the previous ESA 95 guidance. We have continued to improve the data sources and methods used to compile pensions data and, in September 2017, the PSF statistical bulletin incorporated improvements to funded public sector employee pension schemes. The improvements vpn configuration to pensions recording, which were to be implemented in the national accounts in Blue Book 2018, were described in a dedicated article. Figures 1 and 2 in this article present comparisons of the same measures of public sector and general government debt and/or financial liabilities over the period March 2011 to March 2018, expressed in £ billion, and as a percentage of gross domestic product , respectively.

The Budget announced that government would no longer use PF2 for new projects and that a new centre of best practice in the Department of Health and Social Care would be set up in an effort to improve the management of existing PFI contracts . Figure 1, which is expressed in financial terms, continues to show a rise in some debt measures and, for others, a fall in the year to 31 March 2018. The technical provisions include allowance for incurred but not reported claims and also outstanding claims. The risk margin represents the cost of the capital required to be held given the liabilities.

This decreased between March 2011 and March 2017, partly reflecting government’s sales of Lloyds Banking Group shares, leading to LBG being reclassified outside of the public sector from April 2014. This reduced PSND and partly reflected the significant reductions in the balance sheet liabilities of Royal Bank of Scotland and LBG (as measured under the European System of Accounts framework) over the period. Provisions are funds set aside by a company to cover probable cash outflows arising in the future.

The main difference as regards public sector debt is that, for PSF purposes, the government debt liabilities in the form of government bonds (“gilts”) are recorded at face value, whereas, within the national accounts, gilts are valued at market value. Estimates of PSND, both including and excluding public sector banks , are available monthly within the Public sector finances statistical bulletin, which is published jointly by ONS and HM Treasury . Following consultation, the PSND ex measure was redefined in September 2014 to exclude all transactions and balance sheet positions related to public sector banks. Previously, it had excluded those transactions and positions identified as temporary effects of the financial crisis. The “ex” measures of public sector net debt and net borrowing are important as these are the measures used by HM Treasury for fiscal planning and by the Office for Budget Responsibility when forecasting and evaluating the fiscal plans.

About ONS

It is important to appreciate that each of these measures is compiled for a specific purpose and that each provides a perspective on the net or gross liabilities of the public sector that are relevant to that purpose. If the business believes that its interim payments for the coming year are going to be too high or low – for example, because of a change in business circumstances – then you may consider making an adjustment. Whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity. The inclusion of provisions in this calculation reduces the company’s equity value. When the cause of the provision is publicly disclosed, the company’s share price is likely to fall the reduction in the value of the company. How I have worked out your Income Tax – Taxfiler will display a breakdown of the values allocated to each rate band, and a total of the income tax charged.

The diagram on p2 of Chapter 13 should help show what we need to consider under Solvency II. The BEL is a cashflow projection and presents the present value of the expected future cashflows (claims + expenses – premiums etc). Taxfiler enables accountants to simplify returns process and easily file an online tax return directly to HMRC and Companies House. You can read more in our article about how to work out your working capital cycle. Business Class Are you looking for the latest trends and insights to fuel your business strategy? Whether you are starting out, growing or an established, multi-generational business, you will need an advisor who understands your journey.

The general government consolidated debt is published quarterly in our statistical bulletin, UK government debt and deficit as reported to the European Commission, and monthly in the PSF statistics. The debt measure is defined within the Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure, annexed to the Maastricht Treaty, and related European legislation. All EU member states are obliged to report their Maastricht debt at least twice a year and it is used by the European Commission to monitor member states’ levels of government debt; it is also used widely for purposes of international comparisons. It is also possible to identify contingent liabilities in the form of potential lawsuits that have not yet occurred. Again, the legal department would determine the likelihood of such lawsuits occurring as well as the likelihood of losing them. This type of contingent liability would again simply be acknowledged in the footnotes without any cautionary adjustments being made to the finances.

FRC publishes findings on the quality of corporate reporting in 2020/2021

By contrast it is estimated by ONS that, were off-balance sheet PPPs to be recorded on the government balance sheet, this would lead to an approximate further £28 billion of PPP liabilities at the same point in time. Where a PPP is classified as “on-balance sheet”, the capital costs of the scheme will be recognised as a financial loan liability for government and this liability will increase public sector net debt. The regular payments made by government over the lifetime of the PPP cover service, interest payments and capital costs.

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  • At the end of the year, the accounts will be amended to reflect the actual cost of the warranties over the previous year.
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  • As at end-March 2018, the UK National Accounts and PSF debt measures included approximately £6 billion in finance lease liabilities relating to on-balance sheet PPPs.
  • As with national accounts, the State Pension is not included in the WGA measure of public sector net liabilities.

In the context of government debt and fiscal sustainability measures, debt securities are most commonly recorded at face value as this more closely reflects the financing requirements of government. Movements in the market value of gilts can be difficult to interpret, sensitive as they are to external circumstances and market perceptions. The market value can fluctuate significantly from month to month with no, or little, change to the face value of the debt. For these reasons PSNFL ex includes the liability of debt instruments at face value. This approach is also consistent with the recommendations of the 2013 Review of PSF statistics.

History of IAS 37

Wider measures of public sector debt, July 2011 described the history, and challenges, of PPP and PFI reporting. In the national accounts, a PPP is recorded off the government balance sheet only where the non-government partner bears most of the risks and is entitled to receive almost all the current benefits from the assets. The rules are complex, but where a PPP is classified as “off-balance sheet” there is no debt liability recorded in the government balance sheet and so no direct impact on national accounts and PSF debt measures. Although government will be making regular payments to the non-government PPP partner and, as with any other expenditure, these payments will require government financing and so will indirectly impact future debt levels.

In such a case, the financial corporation will be both the administrator and the manager. “Unfunded” means that pension benefits are paid out of current income as and when they become due; such schemes are commonly known as “pay-as-you-go”. They are not underpinned by a fund which generates investment income for pension payments, although it is possible for such schemes to have a ring-fenced account for liquidity purposes. UK fiscal measures relating to the public sector, such as PSND, PSNFL have been established and defined by, and for use within, the UK.

what is an estimated liability

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For valuation purposes, analysts convert off balance sheet provisions into finance provisions. To recap from our earlier blogs, here are the formulas for equity value and enterprise value. Finance provisions have debt-like characteristics with a definite cash outflow in the future.

IAS 37 — Changes in decommissioning, restoration, and similar liabilities

You should decide whether the liability should be changed based on the information provided by the business. Sign up to access your free download and get new article notifications, exclusive offers and more.

If a company has a probable obligation (defined as more than 50% likely) where the payment can be estimated reliably, but it is not known for certain, then a provision is reported on the balance sheet, at the best estimate of the future payments. If the company has only a possible obligation to make a future payment, which is not probable and has less than 50%probability of occurring, then it is not shown on the balance sheet, but instead disclosed as a contingent liability in the footnotes. As a result of various forms of financial assistance and the potential for insurance recoveries, consideration of contingent assets is an area that many entities will need to actively consider. Like contingent liabilities, the key will be determining where the past event falls with reference to the reporting date.

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